Wednesday, 12 November 2014

Henry the Young King Says Thank You!

7 November marked the second anniversary of our blog. We have survived in the blogosphere. Hooray! Of course this would not be possible without all the wonderful people we have met. I would like to thank my dear husband Piotrek for his love and and unwavering support; Ms Marsha Lambert for being our Guardian Angel; Ms Anerje, Ms Joan BattistuzziMs Gabriele C. and Ms Donna Schleifer for their lovely and thought-provoking comments; Ms Kathryn Warner for her encouragement, kind support and fresh approach to writing about history; Ms Sharon Kay Penman and Ms Elizabeth Chadwick for my renewed interest in Henry and his tempestuous family; Mr Richard Willis for inviting me and Henry to his blog (and my first offiicial post on Henry), his friendly words of advice and our chats about the Angevins; Ms Emilie Laforge, who has become Henry's godmother; Ms Stephanie Ling and Mr Ken John for all the links and recommendations; also Mr David Parr, Ms Maria Grace, Mr David PillingMr Darren Baker, Ms Sonja Koch (our Dear Kleine Dame aus Berlin), Ms Elisabeth Millard, Ms Paula Lofting, Ms Gocho from Strategie Portal, Mr Koby Itzhak, Ms Sarah Butterfield, Ms Teka Lynn, Mr Valentino KrizanićMs Cristina Beans Picón, Ms Kasia II, the champion of Henryk IV Probus and Louis IX of France, Mr Clever Boy and Ms Ellen of Historical RagbagMr Malcolm Craig for being My Friend in the Twelfth-Century History. I hope I have mentioned all the lovely people who have supported us in our efforts to bring the Young King to life. Thank you!


PS Our Liege would be grateful if you could read this article once again plus Ms Sharon Kay Penman's Devil's Brood. Happy reading :-)

Friday, 7 November 2014

Bloggiversary or How Henry the Young King Blog Turned Two...

Today marks the second anniversary of Henry the Young King blog! Long Live the King! Even if he is not counted among England's monarchs. I started to run our household exactly two years ago, on 7 November 2012, posting about Henry at the coronation of his brother-in-law, Philippe Capet [later Auguste]. And here we are- jauntily conquering blogosphere. To celebrate the joyous occasion I have invited our friend, Ms Joan Battistuzzi, who is going to tell us about her stay in England and places related to Henry the Young King and his family. She paid a visit to York, for instance, where the Treaty of Falaise was confirmed on 10 August 1175 in a grand ceremony, with William I of Scotland paying homage to both Henry the Young King and Henry II, and to Westminster Abbey, where the first coronation of Henry the Young King took place on 14 June 1170, officiated by Roger of Pont-l'Eveque, Archbishop of York. 

                              

The Young King subsequently established his household in Winchester, employing William Marshal as tutor-in-arms. Over to you, Joan...

Thank you, Kasia, for inviting me to join you and Henry the Young King at his household, which, I understand, is celebrating a second anniversary!  Congratulations and best wishes for many more years of success. It's a pleasure to be here to share some of my experiences in a recent trip to England with my sisters, Linda and Pat, focussing mainly on young Henry and his family's association with the city of Winchester.

On 27 August 1172, the second coronation of Henry the Young King took place at Winchester Cathedral, along with Marguerite's first crowning. This cathedral would also see the formal crown-wearing ceremony of Richard Lionheart, younger brother of Henry in April 1194. 

                               

The beautiful city of Winchester is where I mostly felt the pull of history associated with Henry the Young King, his family and ancestors. Capital of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex under Alfred the Great, and a major royal City under medieval kings, the layers of past ages are everywhere. 

The Great Hall is the only surviving part of the Royal Castle that Henry, Eleanor, and their children would have known intimately, and even it was rebuilt.....by Henry III (the young King's nephew).  Yet standing in this remarkable place, it was easy enough to conjure up family scenarios on their regular visits to the royal residence.  What those castle walls would have been privy to with that feisty family, dynamic personalities all vying for dominance!  Think of the tête-a-têtes, verbal sparring, with enough of the sarcastic Angevin wit to spice things up!  How many plans were laid & plots hatched right here!  But there would also have been laughter, certainly lots of young Henry's playful humour.  And banquets with dance, song, & poetry.  Sadly, those walls, at Henry senior's command, would also keep Eleanor prisoner for some years.

                                

It wasn't difficult either, to envision family members entering the city onto High Street through Westgate, one of two surviving medieval gateways in the city......Kingsgate the other.  Roman and Saxon in origin, rebuilt in the 12th century, and later modified, this silent, stone witness gives the impression that it still stands guard.

                         

You aren't in Winchester long before other past dramatic events come to mind. I often thought of young Henry's paternal grandmother, Empress Matilda battling the forces of Stephen of Blois for her right to the crown, the Rout of Winchester in the summer of 1141, and Bishop Henry of Blois whose seemingly sole godly act was creating the Winchester Bible. Unfortunately it was closed to public viewing while we were there, disappointing as it would have been the only illuminated manuscript we'd see in England.  Another dramatic event that would change the course of history happened in the nearby New Forest in the year 1100.  The deadly arrow that may have had King William Rufus' name on it before it was released, sent the dead King's younger brother Henry galloping off to Winchester Castle to secure the Kingship & royal treasure.  William Rufus was young Henry's great-grandfather.

Back to Bishop Henry for a minute, there's a possibility he was instrumental, along with some of his considerable wealth, in founding The Hospital of St. Cross, a medieval almshouse not far from the "water meadows", that still shelters elderly gentlemen.  My sisters & I took part in the 900 year old tradition of requesting the Wayfarer's Dole from the porter.......a morsel of bread & small cup of ale is offered for a small donation (we felt generous that day & also enjoyed a great chat with the friendly porter on the coming Scottish election). 

                                  
                                      
Touring glorious Winchester Cathedral was truly awesome, with the Norman Romanesque architecture of the north and south transepts juxtaposed against the soaring Perpendicular Gothic of the nave, and stained glass windows working their magic everywhere.  Here, Henry the Young King progressed up the nave (albeit somewhat altered) with Marguerite in August 1172, and brother Richard Lionheart celebrated his formal crown-wearing ceremony in April 1194.

                           

With all this splendour going on around and above, I unexpectedly got hooked on the intricate floor tiles, some areas still intact from the 12th century.  Naturally, I had to pause & wonder who all would have trod here.  My sister seemed to be caught up in the same reverie & spotted this rather mystical image.  


                          
  

I thought I would add a few special photos:



Installation of ceramic poppies for centenary of WWI, one poppy planted for each life lost

My sisters & I met & chatted with my Brit heart throb after great performance by entire cast


......love this shot, looking at the Victoria Tower from the cloisters of Westminster Abbey (now I see symbolism....total fluke)

                                         Jane Austen home in Chawton Village

                            Desk where she wrote some of the novels we cherish today

                         "So England" - Rupert Brooke's English unofficial rose, perchance?


                             2 sisters strolling in Chawton (could be Jane & Cassandra)


Thank you so much, Joan, for accepting our invitation on this very special day and sharing your English memories with Henry's readers. We are both happy and honoured to entertain you here, in Henry the Young King's realm. I cannot imagine a better way to celebrate the joyous occasion.

Ms Joan Battistuzzi is the author of the two brilliant reviews of Ms Sharon Kay Penman's novels, Lionheart (together with Ms Stephanie Ling) and A King's Ransom. Happy reading!


Wednesday, 5 November 2014

Edward II's Twelfth-Century Ancestry: A Guest Post by Ms Kathryn Warner

I am delighted to welcome Ms Kathryn Warner, who is currently doing a blog tour to promote her book on Edward II and has kindly agreed to be our guest today. Ms Warner's book, Edward II: the Unconventional King has been published by Amberley Publishing. In this post Ms Warner discusses the twelfth-century ancestry of Edward II, his great-great-uncle Henry the Young King included.

              

Edward II's Twelfth-Century Ancestry

King Edward II was born in Caernarfon, North Wales on 25 April 1284, as the youngest child of Edward I and his first, Spanish wife Eleanor of Castile.  He was at least their fourteenth child, perhaps fifteenth or sixteenth, and the only one of their four sons to reach adulthood; his elder brothers were John (1266-1271), Henry (1268-1274) and Alfonso (1273-1284), the latter named after their uncle Alfonso X of Castile.  Of Edward's numerous older sisters, only five, Eleanor, Joan, Margaret, Mary and Elizabeth, survived childhood.  Edward succeeded his father as king of England when Edward I died, at the age of sixty-eight, on 7 July 1307.

Eleanor of Castile died in November 1290 in her late forties, and only six of her fourteen or more children outlived her.  Edward I remained a widower for nine years, and married Philip IV of France's half-sister Marguerite in September 1299, when he was sixty and she twenty.  Marguerite was the mother of Edward's three youngest children, Edward II's half-siblings, of whom two lived into adulthood: Thomas of Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, born in 1300, and Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, born in 1301, who was the grandfather of Richard II.  Edward II married Isabella of France, Philip IV's daughter, in 1308, and they were the parents of Edward III, born in 1312, and of three younger children, John, Eleanor and Joan.

Edward II was the great-grandson of King John, Henry the Young King's youngest brother, making him Henry's great-great-nephew.  John's first legitimate son and heir, Henry III, was born in October 1207 when John was forty, seven years after he married his queen, Isabel of Angouleme. Henry III in turn married Eleanor of Provence in 1236 and was the father of Edward I, born in 1239.  The future Edward I married Alfonso X of Castile's half-sister Leonor in Burgos, northern Spain, in November 1254, when he was fifteen and she thirteen or almost; they had been married just under thirty years by the time their youngest child Edward II was born.


Edward II was not only the great-grandson of Henry the Young King's brother King John; he was also the great-great-grandson of Henry's sister Eleanor, queen of Castile.  Eleanor was the second daughter of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and married Alfonso VIII, king of Castile.  Eleanor and Alfonso's eldest child was Berenguela or Berengaria, born in 1180 in the lifetime of her uncle Henry the Young King, who married Alfonso IX of Leon and who was briefly queen of Castile in her own right in 1217 before abdicating in favour of her son Fernando III. Fernando was canonised by the Catholic Church in 1671 and is now patron saint of the city of Seville, which he conquered in 1248 after more than 500 years of Muslim rule, and where he died in 1252.  His daughter Leonor or Eleanor, the twelfth of his fifteen children, was Edward II's mother.  Eleanor of Castile was presumably named in honour of her great-grandmother Eleanor of England, and one of her and Edward I's daughters who died young (1276-1278) was named Berengaria after her grandmother.

Another of Edward II's great-great-grandmothers was Alais or Alix of France, daughter of Louis VII and his second wife Constanza of Castile, who was betrothed for many years to Henry the Young King's brother Richard Lionheart and whose sister Marguerite was Henry's wife.  Alais, countess of the Vexin, finally married in August 1195, when she was almost thirty-five; her husband was William or Guillaume IV Talvas, count of Ponthieu, who was many years her junior, only a teenager at the time of their wedding.  Alais and William's only surviving child, Marie, probably born in 1199, inherited Ponthieu from her father. She married Simon de Dammartin, count of Aumale, and had four daughters with him.  The eldest was Joan or Jeanne, born in about 1216 or 1220, who inherited Ponthieu and Aumale from her parents. Joan was betrothed in 1235 to Henry III of England, but this was broken off because of the threats of military action by Blanche of Castile, queen mother and regent of France and Henry the Young King's niece, who was afraid that the English could use Ponthieu as a useful base from which to attack and retake neighbouring Normandy.  Henry III married Eleanor of Provence instead, and in 1237 Joan of Ponthieu married Queen Blanche's nephew Fernando III of Castile. Seventeen years later, Joan's daughter married Henry's son.  Of Joan's five children, only her daughter Eleanor of Castile, queen of England, outlived her, and thus inherited the county of Ponthieu, which passed in turn to Eleanor's only surviving son, Edward II.

Edward II, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine, prince of Wales, earl of Chester and count of Ponthieu, was both the great-great-grandson and the great-great-great-grandson of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, descended from them via both his parents.  One hopes that he knew about these fascinating people and was proud to have them as his ancestors, and also that he had heard of his great-great-uncle Henry the Young King.



You can purchase Ms Warner's biography of Edward II here and here you can visit His Majesty King Edward II at Ms Warner's blog.

Sunday, 2 November 2014

The Wedding at Newbourg and Other November Anniversaries

Happy 854th Wedding Anniversary to Henry the Young King and Marguerite of France, who (were) married on 2 November 1160, at Newbourg, Normandy, with the sanction of Henry of Pisa and William of Pavia, the papal legates. The sad thing is that Henry's father, king Henry II, whose ambitions seemed boundless, deprived his son and his daughter-in-law of the memories of their Big Day. "How?" you may ask... after all there was nothing unusual about their arranged marriage. The answer is simple: on 2 November 1160 the bridegroom was five and the bride two years old. In the age of marriage contracts and early marriages among the nobility, young age of a bride was the order of the day, still the age of both Henry and Marguerite sparked disputes among their contemporaries, after all, as Roger of Howden put it,: "they were but little children crying in their cradle." But Henry II himself did not share the popular sentiment and little wonder, Marguerite brought the Norman Vexin- a heated point of contention between England and France- back under Angevin rule through her dowry*. 

Philip Augustus gives his sister Marguerite, the widow of Henry the Young King, in marriage to Bela III, the king of Hungary (image: Wikipedia)

Let me present other November anniversaries: 

1 November 1141: Important day for Henry the Young King’s grandmother, Matilda. On this day the warring factions released her cousin and enemy, King Stephen, and her brother and ally, Robert of Gloucester, in an exchange of prisoners. Early in the year, on 2 February King Stephen had been captured at Lincoln,a contingent under the command of William of Ypres. Taken by surprise, the Empress had been able to escape only thanks to her half-brother, Robert who had been captured. Without his steadfast support she had no chance to win her cause. She had no other choice but to win his freedom by releasing Stephen.

c. 1 November 1172: Henry the Young King and his queen, Marguerite, staying in England after their Winchester coronation (27 August) were sent by Henry II to Normandy; c.7 November they paid a visit to Marguerite's father, Louis VII of France. The latter's counsels were to persuade the Young King to rebel against his father (the rebellion broke out the following spring)

1 November 1179: Henry the Young King accompanied by his younger brothers, Richard, duke of Aquitaine and Geoffrey, duke of Brittany represented the House of Anjou at the coronation of his brother-in-law, Philip, later known as Augustus. On All Saints’ Day, following Capetian tradition, fifteen-year-old Philip was anointed and crowned at the cathedral of Reims by the archbishop of Reims, his uncle, Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. At the time of the ceremony, Philip’s father, Louis VII was yet alive, but “labouring under old age and a paralytic malady” unable to attend. Henry the Young King carried Philip’s crown in the procession and supported his head during the coronation. 

1 November 1191: Henry the Young King’s illegitimate brother, Geoffrey, having been nominated Archbishop of York by his brother king Richard I in 1189 and consecrated on 18 August 1191, was eventually enthroned on 1 November the same year. Geoffrey had been his father’s chancellor and stay with the old king till the very end, “…secular office in his father’s service…” having been his true vocation. As the archbishop, Geoffrey possessing “an impracticable self-will and an ungovernable temper”, became notorious for the quarrels with his canons. His dispute with his younger brother, King John over taxing church revenues for the royal treasury in 1207 ended up with Geoffrey’s escape. He died a bitter man at Notre-Dame-du-Parc near Rouen on 12 December 1212.

2 November 1164: Four years after the young Henry’s wedding, the person responsible for arranging the match, Thomas Becket, already Archbishop of Canterbury, and already in exile landed in Flanders accompanied by two canons and a servant, carrying with him only his pallium and his archiepiscopal seal. One time chancellor would stay on the Continent for six years, spending most of his time at the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny. He would return to England on 1 December 1170 only to be murdered twenty-eight days later at the steps of his own cathedral.

4 November 1174: As Ralph of Diceto noted: “... at about midnight, for the space of an hour and more the whole of the northern sky was observed to be a bloody red colour.” (The Plantagenet Chronicles, p.140) Such occurrences were usually interpreted as bad omen heralding oncoming disasters.

6 November 1153: Long-awaited day for Henry the Young King’s father, Henry Fitz Empress. By the so called treaty of Wallingford [or Winchester] he was recognized as King Stephen’s heir and adopted son. Stephen “worn out by war and saddened by the deaths of his wife and son” signed and agreement that Matilda’s son would succeed him. 

13 November 1160: Henry the Young King’s father-in-law, Louis of France (1120-1180) married his third wife, Adela of Blois. His second wife, Constance of Castile had died giving birth to yet another daughter and Louis, never giving up hope to sire a male heir, did not waste time. As Ralph of Diceto noted in his usual matter-of-fact manner: “The queen of France, daughter of Alfonso, Emperor of Spain, died in giving birth to a daughter who fortunately survived. King Louis, however, did not observe the proper time of mourning but within two weeks had married Adela, daughter of Count Theobald of Blois”. One may find it the most unusual action taken by usually monkish king, but in 1160 Louis was already forty and the father of four daughters. No wonder he was in a hurry and to the good effect. Five years later Adela gave him a much-awaited son, Philip.

18 November 1169: Henry the Young King’s father met Louis VII at Montmartre to discuss the reconciliation between the English king and the exiled Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, whom the king of France, acting as a mediator, had taken under his protective wing. Despite the promising beginning- Henry II promised to withdraw all obnoxious usages and customs and guarantee full freedom to the Church when matters of appeals and visitations were concerned and the Archbishop, in his turn, agreed to omit the saving clause and return to England at once- the meeting ended in failure. The reason being Thomas Becket’s obstinacy. He demanded the kiss of peace, saying that “he would not for the present make peace with the king, unless, in accordance with the pope’s advice, it was ratified by the kiss of peace” as the guarantee of his safety. This was met with the king’s refusal, who “weary after a full day and with this long night’s ride before him, again and again cursed the archbishop on the way, reckoning up and recapitulating the labours, vexations and distresses which he had caused him”.

18 November 1189: Henry the Young King’s brother-in-law, William II of Sicily, frequently referred to as William the Good, died, aged thirty-five. He married Young Henry’s youngest sister, Joan in 1177. He was twelve when he assumed the throne and before he reached maturity his mother, Margaret of Navarre ruled in his name. When he could finally rule on his own he proved to be strong and capable ruler, a worthy match to his grandfather, Roger II. Notable for his foreign policy, he did little to diminish the model of monarchy introduced by his predecessors. Through his splendid marriage in 1177 he gained a powerful ally, Henry II of England. 

21 November 1181: Roger of Pont l’Eveque, Archbishop of York died. By some called “… a learned and eloquent man, and in worldly affairs, prudent almost to singularity…” by others simply “a devil”, it was he, who, acting at Henry II’s order, in 1170 crowned the Young Henry king of England in Westminster Abbey, in the absence of the exiled Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket. 

25 November 1120: There would have been no King Stephen, no Lady of the English**, no Henry II and no Henry the Young King had not the White Ship sunk on a cold November evening near Barfleur, burying the hopes of many, both in England and Normandy. On its deck there was the cream of the young Anglo-Norman aristocracy, with Henry I’s only legitimate son and heir, William Atheling among them. Being notorious for his out-of-wedlock activities and constant violating of his marital vows, Henry I, the father of more than twenty bastard children, had been able to produce only two legitimate children in the eight years of his marriage to Edith-Matilda, the Good Queen. These were Matilda ( b. 1102) and William (b. 1103). The latter’s death in the White Ship disaster and his father’s subsequent failure to produce a legitimate male heir form his second marriage led to the succession crisis and the nineteen years of the darkest period in the history of medieval England, the Anarchy.

c. 29 November 1181: Henry the Young King, together with his brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, came to his brother-in-law's aid. The young Philippe Capet badly needed support in the war against Philip, Count of Flanders, who attacked his lands. Thanks to Henry II and his three eldest sons he emerged as a victor.





* Marguerite’s dowry, the Vexin- an area of northern France that bordered Normandy-had been given to Louis by Geoffrey of Anjou [the Young Henry’s paternal grandfather] as the price of his son Henry’s [future Henry II] recognition as Duke of Normandy. Henry never doubted that one day he would win it back.

** Lady of the English, “Domina Anglorum”, Henry the Young King’s grandmother, Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, who, upon her younger brother, William Adelin’s death in the White Ship disaster became her father’s sole heir. Her struggle to win back what she considered rightfully hers plunged England in the civil war that was not to be ended until her eldest son, Henry of Anjou ascended the throne in 1154.



Sources:

The Annals of Roger of Howden. Vol I. Trans. by Henry T. Riley. Internet Archive of Northeastern University Libraries

The History of the English by Henry of Huntingdon in The Plantagenet Chronicles ed. by Dr Elizabeth Hallam

Images of History by Ralph of Diceto in The Plantagenet Chronicles ed. by Dr Elizabeth Hallam

The Annals of Roger de Hoveden trans. by Henry T. Riley

Roger of Wendover’s Flowers of History Vol. II translated into English by J. A. Giles

Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia ed. by Christopher Kleinhenz

Henry I: king of England and Duke of Normandy by Judith A. Green

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket, III by Herbert of Bosham in English Historical Documents 1833-74 ed. by David Douglas and G.W. Greenaway

Henry II by W.L.Warren

The English in the Twelfth Century. Imperialism, National Identity and Political Values by John Gillingham

Eleanor of Aquitaine by Marion Meade

Plantagenet Ancestry by Douglas Richardson

Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy by Kenneth J. Panton

Saturday, 1 November 2014

All Saints' Day 1179: How Henry the Young King Overshadowed Philippe Auguste

Yes, he really did it! Our Henry performed the feat, despite the low opinion the historians usually hold of him and despite their shared conviction that his reign would have proved a total fiasco, comparable only to the disastrous reign of his nephew and namesake, Henry III. Had Henry lived long enough, with Geoffrey's help, he might have hold on to the Angevin continental domains a little bit longer than his brother John. I am certain that even a cold fish like Philippe Capet would fall victim to Henry's natural charm. Anyway, the funny thing is that on 1 November 1179 Henry actually did not have to do anything to overshadow his brother-in-law. It was enough that he appeared in great style in Reims Cathedral, accompnied by his younger brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, flashed one of his sunny smiles and bedazzled all the present with the richness of his robes, retinue and gifts for Philippe. At least this is how I picture the scene. But enough with my active imagination! Let's rather focus on the facts and the facts can be found here, in one of my previous posts, in which I focused not only on the grand ceremony itself, but also on the tournament that had been organized to celebrate the occasion.

The 15th century manuscript illumination by Jean Fouquet, depicting the coronation of Philippe Auguste. The Young King is holding the crown (image: Wikipedia)

The tournament at Lagny-sur-Marne, in which Henry took part has been described in detail by the author of the History of William Marshal. You can read the whole excerpt here, at Ms Chadwick's brilliant blog. Happy reading! 

Thursday, 30 October 2014

Edward II: The Unconventional King Blog Tour

Wonderful news for all those who would like to learn more about Henry the Young King's great-great-nephew Edward II from a long-awaited biography by Ms Kathryn Warner that has been oficially released on 28 October 2014: Ms Warner is going on a blog tour this week to promote her book. You can meet her at the following blogs:

28 October: A general introduction to Edward II, his reign and his ancestry at Christy K. Robinson's Rooting for Ancestors blog.


29 October: A post about Edward II and his children at Medievalists.net.

30 October: Edward and the Despensers at Susan Higginbotham's blog.

31 October: An interview with Gareth Russell on his blog.

1 November: Edward II and Piers Gaveston at Anerje's Piers blog.
2 November: Edward II and his household at Annette's Impressions in Ink.


3 November: Edward II and his rustic pursuits at Becky's The Medieval World.

4 November: An interview and book giveaway with Olga at Nerdalicious.

5 November: Edward II and his 12th century ancestry at Henry the Young King


Ms Warner has kindly agreed to pay a visit to Henry the Young king blog, too. Hooray! We will have the rare honour to entertain her on 5 November. You are warmly welcome.



 


Kathryn Warner’s new book, ‘Edward II: The Unconventional King’, is available to buy now at the Amberley website: www.amberleybooks.com, precisely here.
Visit Kathryn’s blog here: http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.co.uk/.


Monday, 27 October 2014

Henry the Young King's Expansion

I am happy to announce that recently Henry the Young King has found one more safe haven. He is going to share it with his namesakes, other Henrys, coming from different parts of Europe. Bearing in mind his proverbial charm he should make friends easily (of course if not tourneying, he is going to spend most of his time here - as he always does). You are going to find him here, on Henryków Blog. "Henryków" means "belonging to Henrys". As it happens, it is also the name of a small town, where one of the oldest Cistercian houses in western Poland had been founded by Duke Henryk Pobożny [Henry the Pious] in 1222, with the first abbot also named Henryk. It was in Henryków where the invaluable collection of documents was kept with the very first sentence in Polish recorded (as we know the books were written in Latin then). The collection is known as Księga Henrykowska [the Book of Henryków] and can be seen in the Archidiocesan Museum of Wrocław today.

Duke of Wrocław, Henryk IV Probus [the Righteous] as the winner of the tournament, image from Codex Manesse (source: Wikipedia)

Henryków Blog is going to house the apartments of Polish, English, French and German kings, dukes and counts named Henry. Feel free to drop by and pay a visit to them. To do this you will have to use the Google translator, though, so the contents may seem a little bit "clumsy" to you (as always with such devices).

PS Personal request: Please do read this post again and help Henry free himself from Mr Warren's groundless accusations (at least some of them).