On 1 June 1191 Philip, count of Flanders died in the Holy Land, at the siege of
Acre. He was
one-time ally and mentor of his cousin, Henry the Young King. I thought it a
good occasion to continue my story of those who were important to Henry in his
lifetime and afterwards.
Members of Henry’s mesnie (military household): William Marshal (c.1147-1219), the fourth son of John Marshal (the second by his second wife, Sybil, sister of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury); in 1170 appointed tutor in arms of the newly crowned Henry the Young King. The latter’s mentor, guide and best friend for thirteen years, loyal to his young lord until the latter’s sudden death on 11 June 1183. Fulfilling Henry’s deathbed wish, he undertook the pilgrimage to the
Holy Land to take the Young King’s crusader
cloak to the Holy Sepulchre. Peter fitz Guy- the Young King’s seneschal in the
1170s; Hasculf de St Hilaire (d.
before 1180) from the family of Saint-Hilaire-du-Harcouet, member of Henry the
Young King’s household before the outbreak of the Great Revolt of 1173-74;
accused of exerting a bad influence on the Young King and turning him against
his father. The latter dismissed Hasculf and other knights, from his son’s
court, which Robert of Torigni in his Chronicle
considered one of the direct reasons for the growing estrangement between the
father and the son, and consequently for the outbreak of the rebellion itself. Together with
the Breton magnate Ralph de Fougeres,
Hasculf was one of the chief instigators of the revolt on the border of Normandy and .
He was among the rebels, who surrendered to Henry II at the Brittany castle of Dol,
26 August 1173. Robert, Count of Meulan,
cousin of the French king, the greatest magnate in Normandy; Simon de Marisco, apart from William
Marshal the only Englishman in Henry’s household; Baldwin de Bethune, good friend of William Marshal; brother of the
great Picard magnate and Robert, advocate of Arras; Judhael de Mayenne; John des Preaux; Adam d’Yquebeuf, Gerard Talbot and Robert de Tresgoz. Brittany
Some of the members of Henry’s Chancery (clerical household): Richard Barre, present in the household by 1173, who carried the Young King’s seal and returned it to Henry II upon the outbreak of the Great Revolt; Walter the chaplain, Aelward the chamberlain, William Blund, the steward- officials appointed by Henry II, who refused to swear an oath of fidelity to Henry the Young King against his father in 1173 and returned to the old king. Geoffrey (c.1152-1212)- Henry’s half-brother, the eldest illegitimate son of Henry II; during the Great Revolt of 1173-74 stood firmly by his father’s side and won his name fighting the rebels in England. In the aftermath of the uprising appointed chancellor to Henry the Young King. Adam of Churchdown, the vice-chancellor of Henry the Young King after the Great Revolt of 1173-74; infamous for writing a letter to Henry II (whom he considered his true lord), in which he informed of all what he had witnessed at his young lord’s court. The writ discovered, the action enraged Young Henry, who, in the aftermath of the rebellion had his household filled with his father’s men. Adam was for his life. It was only thanks to the intervention of bishop John of Poitiers that he was saved, although he did not avoid punishment. He was whipped naked through the streets of Argentan and later imprisoned. Henry II himself intervened on his behalf and had him placed in Hyde abbey at
. Bishop John saved Adam’s neck
protesting that the vice-chancellor was a clerk and, thus, should not be
subject to lay jurisdiction. Godfrey, the provost of Beverley, and nephew of Roger, Archbishop of York, who was appointed Henry's chancellor in
1176 on payment of 11,000 marks of silver. Archbishop Roger, Gedfrey's uncle is said to
have paid the money. Gedfrey was drowned while crossing from England to Normandy on 27 September 1177. "The occasion was the sinking of several ships,in which Robert Magnus, magister scholarum of York, and 300 others perished." Gervase
of Tilbury, Henry the Young King’s most ardent admirer and chaplain in the
1180s; later in service of Henry’s nephew, Otto IV(1175-1218), Holy Roman
Emperor, who made him the marshal of the kingdom of Arles and for whom Gervase
wrote his most famous work, Otia
Henry’s tutors: Master Mainard, assigned to a post of Henry’s magister in 1156. Not much is known about the man except for the fact that the title ‘master’ indicates that he was both a guardian and a teacher and that to cover his expenses, Mainard received £6 annually from the vill of Dartford, Kent. Thomas Becket (c.1118-1170) Chancellor of England (1155-1162) and later Archbishop of Canterbury (1162-1170), canonised in 1173. Close friend of Henry II. The latter, following Archbishop Theobald’s advice, appointed Thomas to the chancellorship. As a chancellor, in 1158, he negotiated a highly lucrative marriage of Prince Henry and Louis VII’s third daughter, Marguerite. In 1162 he became the young Henry’s tutor, but the prince was removed from his household the following year when the open conflict between Henry II and Thomas, the then Archbishop of Canterbury broke out. William fitz John, a royal familiaris and royal justice; before he was appointed a new ‘magister’ to Prince Henry in 1164, he served as a ‘itinerant justice’, formerly occupied with ‘hearing pleas in
Yorkshire and eight shires in the
south-west between 1158 and 1161’.
His task was to instruct the prince in the mechanisms of the judicial and
financial systems of the kingdom. Except for William fitz John, William of
Canterbury enumerated William de St John, William fitz Audelin, Hugh de Gundeville and Ranulph fitz Stephen as young Henry’s tutores, with St John being most
frequent witness to the prince’s writs in the time when young Henry was a
regent from June 1170 until late 1172.
Philip of Flanders (d.1191) the eldest son and heir of Count Thierry of Flanders and Sybil of Anjou, the sister of Geoffrey le Bel of Anjou; cousin of Henry II; inherited Flanders after his father’s death in 1168, although he had already ruled in his father’s name upon his parents departure for the Holy Land in
1155 married Elizabeth of Vermandois (d.1182), Henry the Young King’s first
cousin and upon her younger brother, Raoul II the Leper’s death in 1167 gained
control over his wife’s inheritance. Ambitious and shrewd politician- under his
rule Flanders flourished- and ardent
participant and patron of the tournaments; chief supporter of the Young King
during the Great Revolt of 1173-74.
(d.1173) ‘a virtuous and handsome knight’ (Gilbert of Mons), younger
brother of Philip of Flanders. In 1160 Henry II arranged for him a highly
lucrative marriage. Matthew was to wed the late King Stephen’s daughter, Mary
of Blois and thus gain the honour of Boulogne*, but in order to carry out this
project Henry II had to haul Mary out of Romsey Abbey, where she was abbess. Matthew and Mary had two
daughters, but the match proved unhappy and they divorced c.1170. Matthew’s
second wife was Eleanor of Vermandois (d. 1214), sister of Elisabeth (Philip’s
wife) and cousin of Henry the Young King. The year of Matthew and Eleanor’s
wedding remains disputable: different sources give respectively 1170 (Robert of
Torigny) and 1172 (Vanderkindere, La
formation) as the date. In 1173 Matthew, together with his brother Philip,
supported Henry the Young King in his rebellion against Henry II. Matthew died
in July 1173 at the siege of Arques, after receiving mortal wound from a
crossbow shot. Boulogne
William I of Scotland (1143- 1214) also known as the Lion; one of the most vivid figures of the twelfth-century Britain; best remembered for being the one-time ally of Henry the Young King in the Great Revolt of 1173-74; the second son of Henry Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne. After his father’s death in 1152 invested as an Earl of Northumberland by his grandfather, king David I.** who was succeeded in 1153 by William’s elder brother, Malcolm (1141-1165). During the latter’s reign William lost Northumberland. As it turned out he never came to terms with the loss and regaining what he thought was rightfully his became his life ambition bordering on with obsession. On Malcolm’s death in 1165, twenty-two-year-old William succeeded the throne. He took part in the Young King’s rebellion after the latter promised to return William’s inheritance. To learn more of William-Henry relations, click here.
Robert, 3rd Earl of Leicester (d.1190) and his wife Petronella (d.1212), Henry’s chief supporters in the Great Revolt of 1173-74, defeated by the royal forces at the battle of Fornham (17 October 1173) and imprisoned by Henry II.
Brothers-in-law: Henry the Lion (d.1195) Duke of Saxony and of Bavaria, married Henry’s sister, Matilda (1156-1189), Alfonso VIII (d.1214), King of Castile, Toledo and Extremadura, in 1170 married Henry’s sister, Eleanor (1162-1214). William II of
(d.1189), the first husband of Henry’s youngest sister Joanna (1165-1199); Raymond VI (d. 1222), Count of Toulouse and
marquis of ,
Joanna’s second husband. Provence
Sisters-in-law: Constance (1161-1201) Duchess of Brittany, Geoffrey’s wife; Berengaria of Navarre (c.1165-1230) Queen of England, Richard I’s consort; Hawisa/Isabelle of Gloucester, the first wife of Henry’s youngest brother, John (1166-1216); Isabella of Angoulême (c.1188-1246), queen consort of England and the second wife of king John. Henry did know and have occasion to meet only Constance of Brittany. Richard and John married already after Henry’s death.
Richard de Belmeis II, bishop of
Rotrou, Archbishop of
Pisa and William of Pavia
Roger of Pont-l’Eveque, archbishop of
John aux Bellesmains, Bishop of Poitiers
Gerald, Bishop of Cahors
Bernard, Bishop of Agen
To learn more about the men I recommend my text Henry the Young King and the Clergy.
Jordan Fantosme, probably of Poitevan connections, was a renowned clerk in the bishop of Winchester’s household, poet and diplomat tied- by the evidence of his work- to the North of England and the Scottish royal court, especially to William the Lion’s younger brother, David, Earl of Huntingdon, whom he greatly praised, not to say idealized in his Chronicle of the War between the English and the Scots; eyewitness to the main events of the Great Revolt of 1173-74. Fantosme’s work remains a trustworthy source of the rebellion, especially the capture of king William before the walls of Alnwick on 13 July 1174. When it comes to the depiction of Henry the Young King and his uprising, Fantosme’s chronicle differs from the other sources: the author created it without the benefit of hindsight into the Young King’s untimely death, in the direct aftermath of the revolt and thus treated young Henry as his future king and did not judge his actions, only tried to understand the young man’s motives.
Robert of Torigni (d.1186), abbot of Mont-Saint Michel***, who had met Henry the Young King and his family on a number of occasions and acted as one of the sponsors at the baptism of his sister Eleanor at Domfront in 1161. Author of the chronicle, from which we learn much about Henry the Young King, his relatives and the figures and events of the era.
Bertran de Born (d.c.1215), lord of Autafort and famous bellicose troubadour, well acquainted with all three Angevin princes, for whom he made up nicknames, e.g. he called the Young King “the king of Lesser Land”. One of the many dissatisfied Poitevan barons, who wanted to replace their liege overlord, Duke Richard [later Lionheart] with his elder brother Henry the Young King. Author of the famous planh, in which he bemoaned Henry’s untimely death, Mon chan fenis ab dol et ab maltraire.
Sancho de Savannac, a mercenary; captain of the Basques hired by young Henry in 1183. It was him, who after Henry’s death spoke in the name of his soldiers demanding the return of their overdue wages. Since the Young King died penniless and William Marshal had no means to pay off the late king’s debt, Sancho threatened to seize the royal body for ransom. William Marshal had to offer himself as a guarantee to pay the money back. Sancho and his fellow soldiers were paid off by Henry II.
Thomas de Agnellis, archdeacon of Wells. In his sermon ‘Sermo de morte et sepultura Henrici Regis Junioris’ (‘On the death and burial of Young King Henry’ in Radulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Angicanum) claimed that the Young King’s body when carried from Martel to
became the focus for many miracles. The rumors of the late king’s sainthood
began to circulate and Thomas was one of the most ardent advocate of the late
king’s sanctity (some suggested his connection with Henry’s mother, then
imprisoned Queen Eleanor). Rouen
Geoffrey of Vigeois (d.1184), a monk of Saint-Martial,
Limoges, and the prior of the small abbey of Vigeois in
the southern .
His Chronicon is an invaluable source
of information concerning Henry’s revolt of 1183 and his last days (especially
the death scene). Limousin
Gerald of Wales (c.1146–c.1223), Henry II’s protégé and court official, chronicler, author of “Topography of Ireland", "Conquest of Ireland", "Journey through Wales", "Description of Wales", "Education of a Prince", "Autobiography", and- among the others- Life of Geoffrey, Archbishop of York (Henry the Young King’s half-brother).When Henry II denied St David’s to Gerald- the position that was the latter’s lifetime ambition bordering on obsession- he turned the clergyman into a bitter enemy. The chronicler gave vent to his malevolence in the texts full of harsh criticism and venom. Still, despite bearing grudge towards the elder king, about the young Henry he wrote in a surprisingly gentle manner.
* The honour of
Boulogne included valuable manors
around London and Colchester.
Wissant was the count of Boulogne’s port through
which much of England’s wool
export passed on its way to the cloth producing Flemish towns ( Gillingham, p.22)
** David held the earldom through his wife Matilda de Senlis, Countess of Northampton-Huntingdon [their marriage had been arranged by David’s brother-in-law, Henry I of
] and had it confirmed in a
formal charter. In 1149 he was promised by Henry fitz Empress [future Henry II]
that “all the land north of England Newcastle and the
Tyne should belong to the kings of for ever”. Henry did not
keep his word. In 1157 he demanded the return of Northumberland from David’s
grandson and successor, sixteen-year-old Malcolm IV. Scotland
*** Under Robert’s abbacy the abbey reached its zenith. The library for instance was enriched by about a hundred books, with a chronicle written by Robert himself.
Chronicle of Hainaut by Gilbert of
into English by Laura Napran. The Boydell Press, 2005. Mons
The Poems of the Troubadour Bertran de Born Ed. by William D.Paden, Tilde Sankovitch and Patricia H. Stäblein.
Press, 1986. University of California
From Childhood to Chivalry. The Education of the English Kings and Aristocracy, 1066-1530 by Nicholas Orme
The Angevin Empire by John Gillingham. Edward Arnold, 1984.
“On the Instruction of a Prince: the Upbringing of Henry, the Young King” by Matthew Strickland in Henry II: New Interpretations. Ed. Christopher Harper-Bill and Nicholas Vincent.
: Boydell Press, 2007 Woodbridge
Mercenaries and Paid Men: the Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages by John
France. Google Books.
France. Google Books.
Death of Kings: Royal Death in Medieval
by Michael Evans. England , 2007. London
The New Historians of the Twelfth-Century Renaissance by Peter Damian-Grint. Google Books.
Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy by Kenneth J. Panton. Google Books.
Change in Medieval Society: Europe North of the
Alps, 1050-1500 by Sylvia
Lettice Thrupp. Google Books.
A History of Anglo-Latin Literature. 1066-1422 by A.G. Rigg. Google Books.
William Marshal. Court Career and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire 1147-1219 by David Crouch.
The World of Eleanor of
Literature and Society in Aquitaine Southern France between the Eleventh and Thirteenth
Centuries ed. by Marcus
Bull and Catherine Leglu. The Boydell Press, 2005.
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by Richard Oram. Tempus, 2006. Scotland
Archbishop Geoffrey Plantagenet and the Chapter of
D.L.Douie. York St. Anthony’s Press,
The Miracles of Our Lady of Rocamadour: Analysis and Translation by Marcus Bull. Google Books.The Constitution and the Clergy of Beverley Minster in the Middle Ages http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/7616/1/7616_4681-vol2.PDF
Mont Saint-Michel by Nicolas Simonnet. Google Books.